We explored the competition among a handful of sovereign powers, the exploitation of peoples and global resources, the relevance of economic power, and the efficacy of international institutions created to mitigate conflicts. As we struggle to define a universal set of rights and modes of conduct, diverse peoples of the world take their cues from current global interactions and enter the world stage with their crafts, mores, and world views.


  • Chair, Bishwapriya Sanyal, Ford International Professor of Urban Development and Planning and Director of the Program for Urban and Regional Studies, MIT
  • Nazli Choucri, Professor of Political Science, Associate Director of the MIT Technology and Development Program, and Head of the Middle East Program at MIT
    New Complexities of Diversity — The end of WWII led to the creation of a number of independent states, whose initial reaction was to adopt the modernization values and norms of the former colonizers. Over time, these states gradually began to question their initial responses and to reconsider their priorities, giving rise to new complexities.
  • Geoffrey A. P. Groesbeck, Legatum Fellowship Programmes, Legatum Center for Development & Entrepreneurship at MIT
    Development in Latin America: When and why it works and when and why it doesn't — We will look at development paradigms and the role entrepreneurship plays in rural Bolivia and Mexico. The five components of successful collaborative development are examined.
  • Joanne Mariner, Director, Human Rights Program, Hunter College, City University of New York
    The Global Architecture of Human Rights Enforcement — A plethora of international bodies have been created to protect human rights, from the UN's Human Rights Council to the International Criminal Court, but the extent to which these institutions have been effective in fulfilling their mandate is subject to intense debate.

This is part 2 of a series of Human Diversity and Social Order Forums.